This is the final section of the tutorial, and it is unavoidably quite lengthy.

One thing which Outcome solves – which alternatives do not – is how to non-intrusively tie together multiple third party libraries, each using Outcome – or some other T|E implementatation like std::expected<T, E> – with custom incommensurate E types, or indeed arbitrary return types which are “split” T|E return types. Solving this well is the coup de grĂ¢ce of Outcome against alternative approaches to this problem domain, including std::expected<T, E>. It is the major reason why you should consider using Outcome over alternatives, including Expected.

Firstly we shall explore some of the problems faced by the software developer when T|E return type based code proliferates at scale, where dozens of libraries may be using completely incompatible T|E return types.

Secondly we shall introduce the ValueOrError concept support in Outcome which implements a subset of the proposed WG21 ValueOrError concept framework.

Finally, we shall then step through a worked example which mocks up a realistic situation that the software developer may find themselves in: tying together disparate third party libraries, whose source code cannot be modified, into an application-wide, mixed-mode T|E and exception throwing universal error handling system which is capable of accurately representing the original failure, but also propagating it in a way that the application can deal with universally.